Protein synthesis is the process by which our cells create proteins. Proteins are essential for the structure and function of our cells, and they perform a wide variety of tasks in our bodies
Protein synthesis occurs in two steps: transcription and translation.
Transcription is the first step, during which proteins are created from DNA.
The translation is the second step, during which those proteins are assembled into their final form. In this article, we'll take a closer look at both steps of protein synthesis and explore how they work together to create new proteins.
Transcription is the first step of protein synthesis. During transcription, DNA is used as a template to synthesize RNA. RNA is very
similar to DNA, but there are a few key differences. For one thing, RNA is single-stranded, while DNA is double-stranded. Additionally, RNA contains sugar ribose instead of deoxyribose (hence the name deoxyribonucleic acid). Finally, RNA contains the nucleotide uracil in place of thymine.
Once RNA has been synthesized, it travels to the Ribosome—the
"workstation" of protein synthesis—where translation occurs. The
translation is the second step of protein synthesis in which RNA is used
as a template to synthesize proteins.
Proteins are made up of amino acids, and 20 different amino acids can be used to make a protein Amino acids are joined together by peptide bonds to form a polypeptide chain—the "backbone" of a protein—and it is the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain that determines a protein's structure and function.
During translation, enzymes attach amino acids in the correct order according to the sequence specified by the RNA template.
Once all of the amino acids have been added to the polypeptide chain, the protein begins to fold into its three-dimensional shape—a process called tertiary structure formation—which allows it to perform its specific function within the cell.
In just two steps—transcription and translation—our cells can create brand-new proteins from DNA templates.
Transcription and translation are the two steps involved in protein
synthesis; during transcription, DNA is used as a template for RNA
synthesis, and during translation, RNA is used as a template for protein
Enzymes play an important role in both steps; enzymes attach amino acids during translation to form polypeptide chains (proteins). Proteins fold into their three-dimensional shapes--a process called tertiary structure formation--which allows them to perform their specific functions within cells.